Doctor of Dental Surgery, University of Oslo 1964
Doctor of Philosophia (Ph.D), (Medicine) University of Tromsø, 1980
Qualified as full Professor in Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oslo, 1984.
Harvard Business School, Advanced Course in Management of Biomedical Research, 1991.
The Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Course in Management, Solstrand, 1992-93
Research fellow in Medicine, University of Tromsø 1974-77
Junior Registrar in General Pathology (autopsy and biopsy), Tromsø 1974-75
Assistant Professor in Anatomy and Pathology, University of Tromsø 1977-80
Associate Professor in Immunology, University of Oslo 1980-85
Product Developer Manager, Research Department, Apothekernes Laboratorium A/S, 1985-87.
Director (deputy 1987-89), Medical Research Council (MRC), Norway, 1987-93
Director, Strategy Department, The Research Council of Norway , 1993-95
Secretary General, Norwegian Association of Research Workers 1995-96
Director, The Norwegian Institute for Studies of Research and Education, 1996-98
Director, The Norwegian Centre for Health Technology Assessment, SINTEF UNIMED, 1998-2004